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Bytebeat is a procedural chiptune/8bit style music generated by a short expression in a programming language; it was discovered/highlighted in 2011 by Viznut (author of countercomplex blog) and others, and the technique capable of producing quite impressive music by single-line code has since caught the attention of many programmers, especially in demoscene. There has even been a paper written about bytebeat. Bytebeat can produce music similar (though a lot simpler) to that created e.g. with music trackers but with a lot less complexity and effort.

This is a beautiful hack for LRS/suckless programmers because it takes quite a tiny amount of code, space and effort to produce nice music, e.g. for games (done e.g. by Anarch).

8bit samples corresponding to unsigned char are typically used with bytebeat. The formulas take advantage of overflows that create rhythmical patterns with potential other operations such as multiplication, division, addition, squaring, bitwise/logical operators and conditions adding more interesting effects.

Bytebeat also looks kind of cool when rendered as an image (outputting pixels instead of audio samples).

How To

Quick experiments with bytebeat can be performed with online tools that are easy to find on the web, these usually use JavaScript.

Nevertheless, traditionally we use C for bytebeat. We simply create a loop with a time variable (i) and inside the loop body we create our bytebeat expression with the variable to compute a char that we output.

A simple "workflow" for bytebeat "development" can be set up as follows. Firstly write a C program:

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
  for (int i = 0; i < 10000; ++i)
      i / 3 // < bytebeat formula here

  return 0;

Now compile the program and play its output e.g. like this:

gcc program.c && ./a.out | aplay

Now we can just start experimenting and invent new music by fiddling with the formula indicated by the comment.

General tips/tricks and observations are these:


It is not exactly clear whether, how and to what extent copyright can apply to bytebeat: on one hand we have a short formula that's uncopyrightable (just like mathematical formulas), on the other hand we have music, an artistic expression. Many authors of bytebeat "release" their creations under free licenses such as CC-BY-SA, but such licenses are of course not applicable if copyright can't even arise.

We believe copyright doesn't and SHOULDN'T apply to bytebeat. To ensure this, it is good to stick CC0 to any released bytebeat just in case.


A super-simple example can be just a simple:

The following more complex examples come from the LRS game Anarch (these are legally safe even in case copyright can apply to bytebeat as Anarch is released under CC0):

See Also

All content available under CC0 1.0 (public domain). Send comments and corrections to drummyfish at disroot dot org.